negotiations_subWhenever two people or two organizations are interacting, there is a chance that they will bring to those relationship different opinions about a certain subject. To get to agreement, negotiation is required and its successful conclusion should provide mutual satisfaction to both parties.

Negotiations are recommended not to be spontaneous, and preparation and time should be given to understand own position and the other party as well.




The negotiation process has several phases listed below:


  1. 1. Determine the most appropriate process of negotiation

  2. 2. Clearly identify the objectives for negotiation.

  3. 3. Build alternatives

  4. 4. Understand and agree on the issues to be negotiated

  5. 5. Quantify the importance of the issues;

Negotiations processes vary with culture, position in society, short and long term interests. Beyond that, there are several methods of negotiation broadly accepted and used:


  1. 1. SOFT

When soft negotiation method is used, the participants are friends, having agreement as a goal, and concessions are made to cultivate the relationship.  The approach on people and problems is soft and positions change easily as there is trust among parties. Offers are made and bottom lines are known to all parties.


  1. 2. HARD

Hard negotiations put participants in adverse positions, and their goal is victory. Concessions are demanded, and the parties are hard on people and problems. There is applied pressure during the negotiations, and own position is re-enforced without leaving room for any offers.



Principled negotiations are based on accepted principles by all parties. These principles guidelines are that the people are separated from the problem, the focus is on interests not on positions, and objective criteria are used to create options for mutual gain.


Negotiations effectiveness is a measure of how successful negotiations are. To make the probability of success higher, several criteria should be in place:


  1. 1. All parties interests should be satisfied;

  2. 2. Successful implementation of agreements

  3. 3. Build and maintain constructive relationships through effective communication and  value creation